The Life of Air Breathing Fishes 2 Vol Set
The Life of Air Breathing Fishes 2 Vol Set
by Datta-Munshi
Year 2009
Paperback/Hardbound Hardbound
ISBN 10 8190795228
ISBN 13 9788190795227
Language English
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on Language 'ENGLISH'
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Published in Year '2009'
Book Details
Untitled Document

CONTENTS OF THE BOOK

Preface xxvii
List of Equivalents Units xxix
Introduction xxxi

VOLUME-I

1. ENVIRONMENT FUNCTION FORM RELATIONSHIP 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Environment-Function-form Relationship 2
1.2.1 Structural Design 2
1.3 Function of Oxygen Uptake 2
1.4 Evolution of Bimodal System and Lungs 3
1.5 Evolution of Air-Breathing Forms 4
1.5.1 Evolution of Lungs 6

2. THE BEARING OF ECOLOGICAL FACTORS ON THE EVOLUTION OF AIR-BREATHING FISHES 8

2.1 Introduction 8
2.2 Palaeo-ecology 8
2.3 Atmospheric Gases 10
2.4 Physical Properties of the Paleozoic Atmosphere 11
2.5 Bimodal Gas Exchange 13

3. ECOLOGY OF NATURAL HABITAT OF AIR-BREATHING FISHES 16
3.1 Introduction 16
3.2 Structure of Swamps and Wetlands 16
3.3 Main Types of Swamps 18
3.3.1 Permanent Swamps 18
3.3.2 Seasonal Swamps 18
3.4 Ecological Characteristics of Chaur 18
3.4.1 Physico-Chemical Factors 19
3.4.2 Diel Variations of Certain Physico-Chemical Factors and their 19
Influence on Biota of a Chaur (Wetland) of Kusheswarasthan
(Bihar, India)
3.5 Gas Envelops 23
3.6 Biotic Component 25
3.6.1 Macrophytes 25
3.6.2 Plankton 26
3.6.3 Zooplankton 26
3.6.4 Periphyton 26
3.7 Macroinvertebrates 26
3.8 Air-breathing Fishes 31
3.9 Relationship Between Habitat and Air-Breathing Habit 31
3.10 Metabolic Wheel Hypothesis 32
3.11 Detritus 32
3.11.1 Nutrient Cycling 33
3.12 Bioenergetics of Rhinomugil Corsula of River Ganga 34

4. BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY IN AIR-BREATHING FISHES 35
4.1 Introduction 35
4.2 Indian Genera of Air-Breathing Teleosts 35
4.3 Marine Species 43
4.4 Speciation in Murrels (Channa = Ophiocephalus) 43
4.5 The Phylogeny and Evolution of the Anabantoids 43

5. BIONOMICS OF AIR-BREATHING TELEOSTEAN FISHES OF INDIA 46
5.1 The Ganga River System 46
5.2 Notopterus chitala (Ham.) 46
5.2.1 Notopterus notopterus (Pallas) 47
5.3 Heteropneustes Fossilis (Bloch.) 48
5.4 Clarias batrachus (Linn.) 50
5.5 Monopterus (Amphipnous) cuchia 51
5.6 Channa punctata (Bloch.) 52
5.7 Channa striatus (Bloch.) 53
5.8 Channa gachua (Ham.) 53
5.9 Channa marulias (Ham.) 54
5.10 Anabas testudineus (Bloch.) 56
5.11 Colisa fasciatus (Bl. & Schn.) 57
5.12 Osphronemus goramy (Lac.) 58
5.13 Macrognathus aculeatum (Bloch.) 59
5.14 Mastocembelus pancalus (Ham.) 59
5.15 Mastacembelus Armatus (Lac.) 60
5.16 Mystus Vittatus 61
5.17 Rita rita (Ham.) 61
5.18 Rhinomugil Corsula (Ham.) 62
5.19 Glossogobius Giuris (Ham.) 63

6. FOOD AND FEEDING HABITS 64
6.1 Introduction 64
6.1.1 Food and Feeding Habits of Animals 64
6.2 Heteropneustes fossilis and Clarias batrachus 69
6.3 Anabas testudineus 70
6.3.1 Food & Feeding Habits of Larvae & Fry 70
6.3.2 Dentition in Anabantoid Fishes 71
6.3.3 Gill Rakers 71
6.4 Feeding Habits of Murrels 72
6.5 Notopterus notopterus 72
6.6 Boleophthalmus boddaerti 72
6.7 Monopterus cuchia 73
6.8 Feeding Mechanism 73

7. ALIMENTARY CANAL SYSTEM 74
7.1 Introduction 74
7.2 Digestive Gland 74
7.3 Alimentary Canal System 75
7.4 Buccopharynx 77
7.5 Oesophagus 77
7.6 Stomach 78
7.7 Intestine and Rectum 78
7.8 The Epithelial Lining of the Gut 78
7.9 Liver: The Digestive Gland 79
7.9.1 Development 79
7.9.2 Morphology 79
7.9.3 Size 80
7.9.4 Liver Histology 80
7.9.5 Ecophysiology of Liver 80
7.9.6 Two Major Features of Fish Eco-physiology 81
7.9.7 Prominent Functions of Fish Liver 81
7.9.8 Hepatosomatic Index (HSI = liver weight/body weight x 100) 82
7.9.9 Organization of Hepatic Parenchyma 82
7.10 Vascularisation and Blood Circulation 83
7.11 Bile Duct 83
7.12 Pancreas 83
7.13 Pancreas: Islets of Langerhans 83
7.14 Hepatic Energy Stores 84
7.15 Electron Microscopy of Hepatocytes 84
7.15.1 Structure of Hepatocytes 84
7.15.2 Sinusoids and their Associated Cells 85
7.15.3 Bile Canaliculi 85
7.16 Billiary Tract and the Gall Bladder in Fish 85
7.16.1 Mucus of the Alimentary Canal 86
7.17 Ontogeny of the Caecum 87
7.17.1 Physiology 87
7.17.2 Structure and Function of the Gall Bladder of Fishes 87

8. FISH GILLS 89
8.1 Introduction 89
8.1.1 Gill Structure 89
8.2 Structure of the Gill of Hilsa ilisha (Ham.) a Water Breathing Active 95
Anadromous Fish (migrating from salt to fresh water annually)
8.3 Structure of the Gill of Labeo rohita (Ham.), Water-breathing 96
Freshwater Fish
8.4 Inter-lamellar Filamenter sinus System 97
8.5 Nutrient Filament System 99
8.6 Inter-lamellar System 99
8.7 Scanning Electron Microscopic Observation on the Structure of 99
Gill-rakers of some Freshwater Teleostean Fishes
8.7.1 Morphometrics and Surface Ultrastructure of Gill Rakers of
Three Indian Teleostean Fishes 101
8.7.2 Structure of Gill of Rita rita (Ham.) 101
8.7.3 Muscles of the Gill Filaments 102
8.8 Clarias batrachus (= magur) 103
8.9 Heteropneustes fossilis 103
8.10 Boleophthalmus boddaerti 105
8.11 Channa punctata 106
8.12 Channa striata 107
8.12.1 Shunt Vessels 108
8.12.2 Structure of the Gill Lamellae 109
8.13 Anabas testudineus 110
8.14 Monopterus cuchia 112
8.15 Structure of Pillar Cells 114
8.15.1 Origin and Cytomorphosis of Pillar Cells 115
8.16 Gill Epithelium and Branchial Glands 116
8.17 Gill Filament Muscles 118
8.18 Modification of Gills in Relation to Environment 118
8.19 Lymphatic System 120

9. THE PSEUDOBRANCH 121
9.1 Introduction 121
9.2 General Structure 121
9.3 Structural Organization 123
9.3.1 Free Type 123
9.3.2 Covered Type 123
9.3.3 Embedded (Glandular) Type 123
9.4 Free Type – Hilsa ilisha 123
9.5 Gadusia chapra 123
9.6 Glossogobius giuris 124
9.7 Glandular type-Notopterus chitala 124
9.8 Pseudobranchs of Anabas testudineus 124
9.9 Anabas testudineus 125
9.9.1 Structure of Pseudobranch 125
9.9.2 Blood Circulation 125
9.9.3 Structure 127
9.9.4 Ultrastructure of Pseudobranch 127
9.10 Function of Pseudobranch 128
9.10.1 Respiratory 129
9.10.2 Osmoregulatory 129
9.10.3 Sensory 129
9.10.4 Secretory/Endocrine 130
9.10.5 Pseudobranch as Multiplier Device 130
9.10.6 Occular Pressure Regulation 131
9.10.7 Neurosecretion 131
9.11 Comparison Between Pseudobranch and Carotid Labyrinth 132

10. ACCESSORY RESPIRATORY ORGANS 133
10.1 Evolutionary Transformation of Accessory Respiratory Organs in
Teleostean Fishes 133
10.2 Structural Evolution of Vascular Papillae 133
10.3 Structural Organization 134
10.4 Pharyngeal Chambers Modified for Air-breathing 134
10.5 Branchial Chambers Modified for Air-breathing 140
10.6 Structural Differentiation of Lamellae of Respiratory Islet of
Heteropneustes 148
10.7 Opercular Chambers Modified for Air-breathing 155
10.8 Structure of the Skin of Air-breathing Teleosts 156
10.9 Gas exchange in the Gastrointestinal Tract 157
10.10 Swim Bladder as a Respiratory Organ 157
10.11 Ecophysiology 158
10.12 Skimming Behaviour 158
10.13 Hill Stream Fishes 159
10.14 Intertidal Fishes 159
10.14.1 Environmental Parameters of Intertidal Rockpools 159
10.15 Accessory Respiratory Organs of Trichogaster fasciatus and
Anabas testudineus 160
10.16 The Respiratory Membrane of Anabas 165
10.17 Structural Pattern of Vascular Papillae of Respiratory Islets 166
10.18 Arterio-venus Anastomoses and Phylogeny of Air-breathing Fishes 167
10.19 Breathing Mechanism 167
10.19.1 Respiratory Muscles 170
10.20 Role of Filament Muscles in Gill Ventilation 171
10.21 Breathing Mechanism in Heteropneustes Fossilis 172
10.22 Breathing Mechanism in the Climbing Perch Anabas Testudineus 173
10.23 Breathing Behaviour 174
10.24 Cardiac and Respiratory Responses in Anabas Testudineus 175
10.25 Breathing Habit of Amphipnous (Monopterus) cuchia 176
10.26 Retrogressive Metamorphosis of Larvae of Monopterus cuchia (Ham.) 178
10.27 Breathing Mechanism in Periophthalmus vulgaris 178
10.28 Sensory Chemo-Baroreceptors 180
10.29 Fish Lungs 181
10.29.1 Mechanics of Lung Ventilation In Holostei 181
10.30 Gas Exchange in the Gastrointestinal Tract in Teleostei 182
10.31 Swimbladder as a Respiratory Organ 182
10.32 Modern Lung Fishes 183
10.33 Metabolic plasticity: Gills Versus Accessory Respiratory Organ 185
10.34 Summary and Conclusions 185

11. BIMODAL GAS EXCHANGE 188
11.1 Introduction 188
11.2 Oxygen consumption (O2) and Carbondioxide Liberation (O2) 188
from water/air
11.3 O2 from Continuous Flowing Normoxic Water 193
11.4 O2 from Still Water 193
11.5 O2 and O2 in Air-exposed Fish 193
11.6 Cardiac and Respiratory Responses in A. testudineus 193
11.7 Oxygen Uptake through Gills and Skin in Relation to Body Weight 195
11.7.1 Anabas testudineus 195
11.7.2 Colisa fasciatus 195
11.7.3 Clarias Batrachus 196
11.7.4 Hetetopneustes Fossilis 197
11.7.5 Thyroid and Oxygen Consumption 197
11.8 Bimodal Oxygen Uptake in Relation to Body Weight 199
11.8.1 Channa gachua and Channa punctata 199
11.8.2 Clarias bactracus 199
11.8.3 Heteropneustes Fossilis 200
11.8.4 Channa marulius 200
11.8.5 Boleophthalmus boddaerti 200
11.9 Circadian Rhythm in the Oxygen Uptake of Air-breathing Fishes 201
11.9.1 Monopterus cuchia 201
11.9.2 Murrels (Channa spp.) 201
Interspecific Variations in the Circadian Rhythm of
Bimodal Oxygen Uptake in Four Species of Murrels

12. SCALING OF THE DIMENSIONS OF GILLS AND ACCESSORY RESPIRATORY ORGANS OF AIR- BREATHING FISHES 205
12.1 Scaling 205
12.2 Morphometrics 205
12.3 Gills of Fishes 206
12.4 Un-weighted Method 206
12.5 Weighted Method 207
12.6 Morphometry of Accessory Respiratory Organs 208
12.7 Stereological Measurements 208
12.7.1 Morphometric Grids 209
12.8 Dimensional Analysis 209
12.9 Scaling of Gill and its Parameters 210
12.10 Juvenile and Adult Groups Divided on the Basis of Natural
Growth of Fishes 212
12.11 Scaling of Air-breathing Organs 214
12.12 Diffusing Capacity of Respiratory Membrane 216
12.12.1 Morphometric Estimation of Oxygen Uptake 217
12.13 Future perspective in Morphometrics 217

13. ROLE OF GILLS AND ACCESSORY RESPIRATORY ORGANS (ARO) IN HOMEOSTASIS 220
13.1 Introduction 220
13.2 Water and Salt Balance in Freshwater and Marine Teleosts 221
13.3 Hormone Metabolism 223
13.4 Renin Angiotensin System 224
13.5 Nitrogen Excretion 226
13.6 Branchial Glands 227
13.6.1 Mucus Glands 227
13.6.2 Chloride Cells 227
13.7 Cytochemistry of Granular Acidophil Cells 232
13.8 Neuroendocrine Epithelial Cell System 233
REFERENCES 234
FISH INDEX 268
AUTHOR INDEX 270
SUBJECT INDEX 274

VOLUME-II

1. THE CARDIO-VASCULAR SYSTEM 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Categories of Circulatory System 1
1.3 General Structure of the Teleostean Heart 3
1.4 Body-Heart Weight Relationship 5
1.5 Structure of the Heart and blood circulation of Notopterus chitala 6
1.5.1. The Heart 6
1.5.2 Blood Circulation of Respiratory Air Bladder of 8
Notopterus Chitala (Ham.)
1.6 Heart of Heteropneustes fossilis 8
1.6.2 Sinus Venosus 10
1.6.3 Atrium 10
1.6.4 Ventricle 10
1.6.5 Bulbus Arteriosus 10
1.7 Vascular System of Heteropneustes fossilis 11
1.7.1 Scanning Electron Microscopy of Vascular Replicas of Heart 11
1.7.2 Afferent Vessels 13
1.7.3 Efferent Vessels 14
1.7.4 Carotid Labyrinth 14
1.7.5 Gill Microcirculation 14
1.7.6 Vascular Relationship Between Gills and ABO 15
1.7.7 Vascular Nature of Carotid Labyrinth 16
1.7.8 Brain Circulation 16
1.7.9 Evolutionary Significance 16
1.7.10 Physiological Significance 17
1.7.11 Function of Non-respiratory part of Gill Lamellae of air-sac 17
1.8 Blood Circulation in Clarias batrachus 18
1.8.1 General Circulation 18
1.8.2 Microcirculation of Gill Filament 20
1.8.3 Microcirculation of Arborescent Organ, Gill Fan and 21 Suprabranchial Chamber
1.8.4 Inter-Lamellar System 22
1.8.5 Respiratory Islet Lamellae 22
1.8.6 Inter-lamellar Plexus System 22
1.8.7 Comparison of General Features of Vascular Organizations 22
of Clarias Batrachus and Heteropneustes Fossilis
1.8.8 Gill Circulation 23
1.8.9 Vasculature of Accessory Respiratory Organs 24
1.9 Structure of the Heart of Monopterus (=Amphipnous) Cuchia 25
1.9.1 Heart Weight/Body Weight Relationships 26
1.10 Blood circulation in Monopterus cuchia 27
1.10.1 Macro-Circulation of Head and Respiratory Organs 28
1.10.2 Microcirculation of Respiratory Islets and Gill 30
1.11 The Heart of Chana Striata 32
1.11.1 Sinus venosus 32
1.11.2 Atrium 32
1.11.3 Ventricle 33
1.11.4 Bulbus Arteriosus 33
1.11.5 Blood Circulation 33
1.11.6 Blood Circulation in the Air-breathing Snakehead Fish 33
1.11.7 Vascular Specialization 34
1.11.8 Afferent Branchial System 36
1.11.9 Secondary Vascular System 36
1.11.10 Efferent Branchial System 37
1.11.11 Coronary Artery 37
1.11.12 Venous System 37
1.11.13 Pseudobranch 38
1.11.14 Choroid Gland 38
1.11.15 Lentiform Body 38
1.11.16 Physiological Implication of General Circulation 38
1.11.17 Secondary Circulation in Fish 39
1.12 Heart of the Climbing Perch, Anabas testudineus 40
1.12.1 Sinus Venosus 40
1.12.2 Atrium 40
1.12.3 Ventricle 40
1.12.4 Truncus Arteriosus 43
1.12.5 General Comparative Blood Circulation in Air-Breathing Fishes 43
1.12.6 Blood Circulation in Anabas testudineus 44
1.12.7 Blood Circulation of Suprabranchial Chambers 45
1.12.8 Microcirculation of Respiratory Islet 45
1.12.9 Blood Circulation 46
1.12.10 Interlamellar System 47
1.12.11 Shunt System 48
1.12.12 Physiological Significance of Circulation 49

2. HAEMATOLOGY 53
2.1 Haematological Parameters 53
2.1.1 High Value of Haemoglobin 53
2.1.2 Other Blood Parameters 57
2.1.3 Blood Parameters Under Different Respiratory Conditions 57
2.2 Respiratory Properties of Blood of Air-breathing Fishes 57
2.3 Oxygen Dissociation Curve in Clarias batrachus 59
2.4 Anabas testudineus 61
2.5 Blood Parameters Under Different Respiratory Conditions 61
2.6 Biological Rhythms in Haematology 62
2.6.1 Circadian and Circanunal Rhythms 62
2.6.2 Blood Glucose and Serum Cholesterol 62
2.6.3 Alkaline Phosphatase 63
2.6.4 Seasonal Variations of Haematological Parameters 63
2.6.5 Haematological Parameters in Relation to Endocrine Glands 64
2.7 Echophysiology 65
2.7.1. Starvation 65
2.7.2 Catching and Transportation 66
2.7.3 Cold-shock and Hyperpyrexia 66
2.7.4 Salinity, Photoperiod and Loading Density 66
2.8 Measurement of Blood Volume in Amphipnous (=Monopterus) cuchia 67
and Heteropneustes fossilis
2.9 Quantitative measurement of blood of Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch),
in Relation to Body Weight and Respiratory Surface areas 68
2.10 Haemopoisis 73
2.11 Carbon Dioxide Transport 74

3. THE INTEGUMEN 77
3.1 Epidermis 80
3.1.1 Stratum Germinativum 80
3.1.2 Middle Layer 80
3.1.3 Outermost Layer 81
3.2 Dermis 81
3.2.1 Stratum Laxum 81
3.2.2 Stratum Compactum 82
3.2.3 Dermal Papillae 82
3.2.4 Subcutis or Hypodermis 82
3.3 Comparative Study 83
3.4 Skin Gland Structure 83
3.4.1 Functions 85
3.5 On the Regeneration and Repair of Superficial Wounds in the Skin of 87
Rita rita (Ham.) (Bagridae, Pisces)
3.6 Keratinization Versus Mucus Secretion in Fish Epidermis 89

4. URINOGENITAL SYSTEM 92
4.1 Kidneys 92
4.2 Ovaries 93
4.3 Testes 93
4.3.1 Morphology and Histology of the Male Reproductive System 95
4.3.2 Accessory Glands 96
4.3.3 Histology of Accessory Glands 97
4.3.4 Urinogenital Papilla 97

5. LIFE PATTERN AND LIFE STYLE AND REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE IN AIR-BREATHING FISHES 98

5.1 Sexual Dimorphism 98
5.1.1 Anabas testudineus 98
5.1.2 Colisa fasciatus 98
5.1.3 Heteropneustes fossilis 99
5.1.4 Clarias batrachus 99
5.1.5 Channa (Ophiocephalus) spp. 99
5.1.6 Notopterus notopterus 100
5.2 Size and Maturity 100
5.2.1 Anabas testudineus 100
5.2.2 Channa striata 100
5.2.3 Heteropneustes fossilis 100
5.2.4 Monopterus cuchia 100
5.2.5 Notopterus notopterus 100
5.3 Sex Ratio, Fecundity, Parental Care and Egg Structure 101
5.3.1 Sex Ratio 101
5.3.2 Fecundity 101
5.3.3 Parental Care 102
5.3.4 Structure of Eggs 103
5.4 Reproductive Cycle in Heteropneustes fossilis 103
5.5 Reproductive Cycle in Monopterus (= Amphipnous) cuchia 104
5.6 Spawning Behaviour 109
5.7 Sexual behaviour 109
5.7.1 Anabas testudineus 109
5.7.2 Clarias batrachus 109
5.7.3 Heteropneustes fossilis 109
5.8 Life Style of Mud-eels : Amphipnous (= Monopterus) cuchia 111
5.8.1 Commercial trade 113
5.8.2 Environment of Kosi River Belt 113
5.9 Air-breathing Habit and General Activity 113
5.10 Metabolic Wheel Hypothesis as Applied to Air-breathing Fishes in 114
Swampy Environment

6. EMBRYONIC AND LARVAL DEVELOPMENT 116
6.1 Embryonic and Larval Development of Heteropneustes fossilis 116
6.1.1 Embryonic Development 116
6.1.2 Post-Embryonic or Larval Development 117
6.2 Development of Anabas testudineus 118
6.2.1. Embryonic Development 118
6.2.2 Post-Embryonic or Larval Development 118
6.2.3 Development of Respiratory Organs of Anabas testudineus 120
6.3 Development of Channa punctata 122
6.3.1 Embryonic Development 122
6.3.2 Post-embryonic or Larval Development 122
6.4 Development of Monopterus cuchia 123
6.4.1 Hatchlings 123
6.4.2 Larval Stage 124
6.4.3 Post-larval Stage 125

7. GROWTH AND BIO-ENERGETICS 126
7.1. Introduction 126
7.2 Medawar (1945) Enunciated Five Laws of Growth Which can be 126
Applied to Growth of Fishes only with Certain Qualifications
(Medwar’s Law)
7.3 Growth Curves 127
7.4 Length-weight Relationship 128
7.5 Condition Factor or Ponderal Index 129
7.6 Growth in Relation to Biotic factor : Density 129
7.6.1 Effects of Density on Growth of Fry of Anabas 129
7.7 Effects of Abiotic Factors on Growth 129
7.7.1 Temperature 129
7.7.2 Photoperiod 130
7.7.3 Seasonal Temperature, Photoperiod and Salinity 130
7.8 Condition factor of Heteropneustes fossilis 131
7.9 Length-weight Relationship of H. fossilis 131
7.10 Length-weight Relationship of Monopterus cuchia 132
7.11 Length-weight Relationship of Boleophthalmus boddaerti 132
7.12 Length-weight Relationship of Notopterus notopterus 132
7.13. Length/Weight relationship in Anabas testudineus and Channa Spp. 133
7.14 Growth in Channa striata 133
7.14.1 Scales as Indicator of Growth and Age 133
7.15 Bioenergetics 133
7.15.1 Food Energy (C) 133
7.15.2 Faecal Energy (F) 134
7.15.3 Energy in Growth Materials (P) 134
7.15.4 Energy Released in Metabolism (R) 135
7.16 Bio-energetics of Anabas 135

8. SENSORY BIOLOGY 138
8.1 Introduction 138
8.1.1 Exteroceptors 138
8.1.2 Proprioceptors 138
8.1.3 Interoceptors 138
8.2 Placodes and Lateral-line Organs 139
8.3 Primary Centers of the Brain 140
8.4 Structure of Brain in relation to Feeding Habits 141
8.4.1 Notopterus Notopterus 141
8.5 Clarias batrachus 142
8.6 Heteropneustes fossilis 143
8.7 Apcryptes lanceolatus 143
8.7.1 Topography 143
8.8 Boleophthalmus boddaerti 145
8.9 Channa gachua topography 145
8.10 Channa marulius/Channa striata 146
8.11 Channa punctata 146
8.12. Anabas testudineus 147
8.13 Colisa fasciatus 148
8.14 Categorisation of Fishes in Relation to Sense Organs and Feeding Habits 148

9. PINEAL ORGAN 151
9.1 General Structure of Pineal Organ 151
9.2 Notopteridae : Notopterus chitala 152
9.3 Heteropneustes fossilis and Clarias batrachus 152
9.4 Ophiocephalidae; Channa gachua 153
9.5 Synbranchidae; Monopterus cuchia 153
9.6 Evolutionary Aspects 153

10. STRUCTURE OF EYE 154
10.1 Introduction 154
10.2 Bimodal Vision of Rhinomugil corsula (Mugilidae, Pisces) 154
a Fresh Water Mullet
10.2.1 Retina of the Superior Hemisphere 156
10.2.2 Retina of the Inferior Hemisphere of Rhinomugil Corsula 157
10.3 Functional aspects and Biological Significance of Horizontal Ridge 160
10.4 Clarias batrachus 161
10.4.1 Tunica Fibrosa 161
10.4.2 Tunica Vasculosa 161
10.4.3 Tunica Interna 161
10.4.4 The Iris 162
10.4.5 Functional Aspects 162
10.5 Channa punctata 163
10.5.1 Tunica Fibrosa 163
10.5.2 Tunica Vasculosa 166
10.5.3 Tunica Interna 166
10.5.4 Lens 167
10.5.5 Functional Aspects 167
10.6 Lentiform Body 168

11. OLFACTORY ORGANS 169
11.1 General Structure 169
11.1.1 Anterior and Posterior Nasal Openings 169
11.1.2 Olfactory Rossette 170
11.1.3 Structural Variation of Olfactory Chamber 171
11.1.4 Histology and Histochemistry of Olfactory Epithelium 172
11.1.5 Mechanism of Olfaction 173

12. THE DUCTLESS GLANDS 174
12.1 Introduction 174
12.2 The Thyroid 174
12.2.1 Evolutionary Aspect 174
12.2.2 Structural Features 175
12.2.3 Channa punctata 175
12.2.4 Heteropneustes fossilis 176
12.3 Clarias Batrachus 176
12.4 Special Features 176
12.5 The Pharyngeal and Ectopic Renal Thyroid in the Freshwater 177
Teleost Puntius sophore (Ham.)
12.6 Ecophysiology 177
12.7 Thymus 177

13. PITUITARY GLANDS 179
13.1 Introduction 179
13.2 Morphology of the Fish Pituitary 179
13.3 Actinopterygii 181
13.4 Primitive Actinopterigians (=Ganoids having genoid scales) 181
13.5 Functional Cytology of Clarias batrachus (Teleostei Claridae) 181
13.6 Angiography of the Pituitary of Monopterus (= Amphipnous) cuchia 182
13.7 Hypothalamo-Neurohypophysial Complex 183
13.7.1 Heteropneustes fossilis 183
13.7.2 Clarias batrachus 184
13.7.3 Hypothalmo-Hypophysial Neurosecretory System of the 185
Indian Mud-eel Amphipnous cuchia (Ham.) with a Note on
the Regeneration of the Pituitary Stalk after Hypophysectomy
13.7.4 Comparative Morphology 185

14. CYTOGENETICS OF AIR-BREATHING FISHES 186
14.1 Structure and Chromosome Number 188

15. XENOBIOTIC TOXICITY IN AIR-BREATHING FISHES 190
15.1 Introduction 190
15.2 Effect of Biocidal Plant Sap on Fishes 194
15.3 Toxic Effects of Plant Sap 194
15.4 Effect of Low pH on Gills of Channa punctata (Bloch) 195
15.5 Ecophysiology of Air-breathing Fishes of Subarnarekha River Under 198
the Impact of Heavy Metal Pollution
15.5.1 Bioassay of Heavy Metals 198
15.5.2 Effects of Sublethal Mercuric Chloride Exposure on
Melanophores of a Catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) 199
15.5.3 Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Fishes 199
15.5.4 Integumentary Chromatophores and Mucous Glands of 201
Fish as Indicator of Heavy Metal Pollution
15.5.5 Gill Morphometric Evaluation of Pollution 201
15.5.6 Oxygen Consumption in Fishes under Sublethal Levels of 201
Copper Sulphate Concentration in Water
15.5 Macrophages and Xenobiotic Toxicity 201
15.6 Toxicity of Malathion on Air and Water-Breathing Fishes 203
15.7 Electron Microscopic Evaluation of Malathion on Gill Lamellae of
Heteropneustes fossilis with Particular Reference to Chloride Cells 204
15.8 Transmission Electron Microscopy 204
15.9 Accumulation of Malathion in Different Organs of 208
Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch)
15.10 Age Related Differences in the Inhibition of Brain Acetylcholinesterase 208
Activity of Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) by malathion
15.11 Optomotor Behavioural Changes in an Air-breathing Fish,
Anabas testudineus Exposed to Malathion 208
15.12 Malathion Induced Changes in the Serum Proteins of 210
Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch)

16. CRANIAL AND EYE MUSCLES OF AIR-BREATHING 211
16.1 Notopterus chitala (Ham.) 211
16.1.1 Mandibular Muscles 211
16.1.2 Hyoid Muscles 215
16.1.3 Hypobranchial Spinal Muscle 217
16.2 Clarias batrachus (Linn) 217
16.2.1 Muscles Involved in Inhalation 217
16.2.2 Muscless Involved in Exhalation 218
16.2.3 Movement of Gill Filaments 218
16.2.4 Movement of Barbels 218
16.2.5 Histochemistry 218
16.3 Channa striata (Bloch) 218
16.4 Anabas testudineus 224
16.5 Monopterus (=Amphipnous) cuchia 224
16.5.1 The Mandibular Muscles 225
16.5.2 The Hyoid Muscles 227
16.5.3 The Branchial Muscles 228
16.5.4 Hypobranchial Spinal Muscles 229
16.5.5 Breathing Mechanisms 229
16.6 Periophthalmus vulgaris (Eggert) 230
16.6.1 Mechanics of Muscles Action 230
16.6.2 Breathing Mechanism (Aerial Aspect) 232
16.7 Histophysiology of Respiratory Muscles 232
Cytochemistry of Respiratory Muscles
16.8 Eye Muscles 233
16.9 Channa marulius (Ham. and Buch.) 233
16.9.1 Rectus Muscles 233
16.9.2 Oblique Muscles 235
16.10 Myodome 235
16.10.1 Function 236

17. CAPTURE AND CULTURE FISHERIES OF COMMERCIALLY 237 IMPORTANT AIR-BREATHING FISHES
17.1 Problems and Cultural Procedures 237
17.2 Cage Culture 237
17.2.1 Cage Culture of Clarias Lazara 238
17.3 Production of Eggs and Fry (Seed) 238
17.4 Induced Breeding in Heteropneustes fossilis 238
17.5 Induced Breeding Clarias batrachus 239
17.6 Natural Breeding 239
17.7 Nursing of Fry and Fingerlings 240
17.8 Culture of Channa punctata 240
17.9 Enemies of fry and Management Measures 240
17.10. Cannibalism and Management Measures 241
17.11 Capture Fisheries of Freshwater Grey Mullet, Rhinomugil corsula (Ham.)
of River Ganga in the Bhagalpur – Nathnagar Sector, Bihar 241
17.12 Production of Air-breathing Fishes in India 243

REFERENCES 244
APPENDIX 272
EPILOGUE 274
FISH INDEX 290
AUTHOR INDEX 292
SUBJECT INDEX 296

ABOUT THE BOOK

The book – ‘The Life of Air-breathing Fishes’ deals with Paleo-ecology, Evolution, Diversity, Cardio-respiratory Innovations and Life Pattern. The subject matter has been delineated in fourteen (13)chapters in Volume 1:-
Environment-Function-Form Relationship ? The bearing of Ecological Factors on the evolution of Air-breathing Fishes ? Biological Diversity in Air-breathing Fishes ? Bionomics of Air-breathing Teleostean Fishes of India ? Food and Feeding Habits ? Alimentary Canal System ? Fish Gill ? The Pseudobranch ? Accessory Respiratory Organs ? Bimodal Gas Exchange ? Scaling of the Dimensions of Gills and Accessory Respiratory Organs of Air-breathing Fishes ? Role of Gills and Accessory Organs in Homeostasis. The book will interest Zoology students and research workers in the field of anatomy, physiology and ecology of fishes. The book will also be useful for field scientists and fishery biologists.