Principles of Biochemistry : With Special Reference to Fishes
Principles of Biochemistry : With Special Reference to Fishes
by Samantrya, Kasturi
Year 2012
Paperback/Hardbound Hardbound
ISBN 10 9380428545
ISBN 13 9789380428543
Language English
Outside India Price USD 199.95
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Book Details
Untitled Document

CONTENTS OF THE BOOK

CHAPTER - 1 : BIOMOLECULES 1

CHAPTER - 2 : WATER 4

I. Water molecule 4
II. Water clusters 6
III. Physical and chemical features of water 6
IV. Water as a solvent 8
V. Dissociation of water 9
CHAPTER - 3 : ACID-BASE BALANCE AND pH 11

I. Acids and bases 11
II. Law of Mass Action 15
III. pH 15
IV. Henderson-Hasselbalch equation 16
V. Titration curve 18
VI. Buffers 19
VII. pH and life 20

CHAPTER - 4 : AMINO ACIDS AND PEPTIDES 22

I. Optical activity of amino acids 23
II. Structure and classification of amino acids 23
III. Amino acid designation 30
IV. Other amino acids 30
V. General properties of amino acids 33
VI. Peptides 36

CHAPTER - 5 : PROTEINS 38

I. Polypeptide chain 38
II. Bonds found in proteins 39
III. Bond energy 41
IV. Amino acid sequences in proteins 41
V. Classification of proteins 42
VI. Structure of proteins 45
VII. Binding sites in proteins 48
VIII. Proteins as acids and bases 49
IX. Protein denaturation 50
X. Renaturation 51
XI. Donnan’s theory of membrane equilibria 51
XII. Browning or Maillard reaction 53

CHAPTER - 6 : CARBOHYDRATES 55

I. Classification of carbohydrates 56
II. Carbohydrate isomerism 57
III. Ring structure of sugars 60
IV. The monosaccharides 64
V. The oligosaccharides 67
VI. The polysaccharides 70
VII. Hemicelluloses, plant exudates and seaweed polysaccharides 74
VIII. Chemistry of the carbohydrates 76
IX. Functions of carbohydrates 80
X. Tests of carbohydrates 81
XI. Enolization and caramelization 83
XII. Enzymatic browning reaction 84
XIII. Crystallization 84

CHAPTER - 7 : FATTY ACIDS AND LIPIDS 85

I. Fatty acids 85
II. Properties of the fatty acids 89
III. Classification of lipids 91
IV. Properties of lipids 98
V. Distribution of lipids in animal cells 99
VI. Fat analysis 99
VII. Auto-oxidation and Rancidity 100
VIII. Pro-oxidants and anti-oxidants 104
IX. Lipids from marine sources 104
X. Lipoproteins and their importance 105
XI. Hydrogenation 106

CHAPTER - 8 : NUCLEIC ACIDS 108

I. Nucleotide and nucleic acid 108
II. Structure of DNA 117
III. Structure of RNA 126
CHAPTER - 9 : VITAMINS 136
I. Classification of vitamins 136
II. Water-soluble vitamins 137
III. Fat-soluble vitamins 147

CHAPTER - 10 : ENZYMES 155

I. Enzymes as catalysts 155
II. Cofactors, coenzymes and prosthetic groups of enzymes 156
III. Classification of enzymes 158
IV. Enzymes bind with substrates 160
V. Specificity of enzymes 161
VI. Enzyme and the reaction rate 163
VII. Enzyme units 166
VIII. Kinetics of enzyme action 167
IX. Action of inhibitors and factors on enzymes 177
X. Genetic control of enzyme synthesis (the Operator Theory) 180
XI. Measuring enzyme activity 180

CHAPTER - 11 : HORMONES 182

I. Hormone receptors 182
II. Chemical messengers 183
III. Classification of hormones 184
IV. Hormone secretion mechanisms 186
V. Neurosecretory mechanisms 186
VI. Hypothalamo-hypophysical system 186
VII. Hormones of different endocrine glands 188
VIII. Prostaglandins (PGs) 208
IX. Pheromones 210

CHAPTER - 12 : METABOLISM AND BIOENERGETICS 211

I. Regulation of metabolic processes 212
II. Biochemical energetics 214
III. ATP cycle 217
IV. Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) or Krebs or Citrate cycle 220
V. Glyoxylate cycle 222
VI. Redox potential 223
VII. Electron transport system (or chain) 224
VIII. Oxidative phosphorylation 227
IX. Formation of ATP 228
X. Biological significance of NADH and NADPH 230
XI. Process of extra-mitochondrial NADH oxidation 232
XII. Respiratory quotient (RQ) 234
XIII. Metabolism of organic molecules 234

CHAPTER - 13 : STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF MUSCLE 290

I. Muscle fiber 291
II. Structure of muscle fiber 291
III. Red (dark) and white muscle fibers of fish 294
IV. Organization of fish muscle fiber 294
V. Protein content of muscle 297
VI. Types of myofibrillar proteins 298
VII Mechanism of muscle contraction 300
VIII. Fish spoilage 304
IX. Changes occur in fish muscle during processing and storage 305

CHAPTER - 14 : RIGOR MORTIS 308

I. Stages of rigor mortis 309
II. Theories proposed to explain the phenomenon of rigor mortis 309
III. The real process of rigor mortis 311
IV. Patterns of rigor mortis 312

Glossary 313
Bibliography and Other Suggested Readings 322
Subject Index 326