Biofuels
Biofuels
by Prasad/Dhanya
Year 2013
Paperback/Hardbound Hardbound
ISBN 10 9380428782
ISBN 13 9789380428789
Language English
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Book Details
Untitled Document

CONTENTS OF THE BOOK

Preface xvii
Acknowledgenment xix

Chapter 1). INTRODUCTION TO BIOFUELS 1

1.1. BACKGROUND 1
1.2. BIOMASS AS RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES 2
1.3. BIOFUELS 3
1.4. CURRENTLY AVAILABLE BIOFUELS 4
1.5. BIOFUELS CLASSIFICATION 5
1.5.1. First Generation Biofuel Technology 5
1.5.1.1. Bio-alcohols 6
1.5.1.2. Biodiesel 6
1.5.1.3. Biogas 7
1.5.1.4. Syngas and Biosyngas 7
1.5.1.5. Solid Biofuels 8
1.5.1.6. Biochar 8
1.5.1.7. The Pros and Cons of First Generation Biofuels 9
1.5.2. Second Generation Biofuel Technology 9
1.5.3. Third Generation Biofuel Technology 12
1.5.4. Fourth Generation Biofuel Technology 13
1.6. INDIA AND BIOFUELS 13
1.6.1. Biofuel Development in India - Important Milestones 14
1.7. OPPORTUNITY AND SCOPE OF BIOFUELS 15
1.8. NEED OF BIOFUELS SUSTAINABILITY 16
1.9. WORLD BIOFUEL SCENARIO AND FUTURE BIOFUEL TARGETS 18
1.10. BIOFUEL STANDARDS 18
1.11. CONCLUSION 19
REFERENCES 19

Chapter 2). BIOFUELS SCENARIO AND POLICIES 22

2.1. BACKGROUND 22
2.2. POLICIES TO PROMOTE LIQUID BIOFUEL DEVELOPMENT 22
2.3. MANDATES AND TARGETS FOR TRANSPORT FUELS
IN MAJOR COUNTRIES 23
2.4. THE GLOBAL BIOFUEL PRODUCTION 25
2.5. GLOBAL BIOFUEL PROMOTING POLICIES 27
2.5.1. Brazil’s National Alcohol Program 27
2.5.2. The United States Ethanol Program 28
2.5.3. The EU Biofuels Policy 28
2.6 INDIA–ENERGY SCENARIO AND CHALLENGES 29
2.7. INDIA’S CRUDE OIL IMPORTS 30
2.8. INDIA’S POLICY INITIATIVES TO SUPPORT BIOFUELS DEVELOPMENT 30
2.8.1. Biofuel Mission of India 31
2.8.2. Ministries Involved in The Biofuels Sector 32
2.8.3. Initiatives in Biofuel Sector by Govt. of India 32
2.8.3.1. Bioethanol Promotion 33
2.8.3.2. Biodiesel Promotion 34
2.8.4. National Policy on Biofuels 35
2.8.4.1. Snapshot of India’s National Policy on biofuels 36
2.9. POLICIES FOR ADAPTATION OF BIOGAS TECHNOLOGY 37
2.9.1. RET 37
2.9.2. CDM 38
2.9.3. Other Policies Implemented by GoI 39
2.9.4. National Project on Biogas Development (NPBD) 39
2.9.5. Biogas Based Distributed/Grid Power Generation Program 39
2.9.6. National Biogas and Manure Management Program (NBMMP) 39
2.10. CONCLUSION 40
REFERENCES 40

Chapter 3. BIOMASS AS ENERGY SOURCE 41

3.1. BACKGROUND 41
3.2. BIOMASS RESOURCES 42
3.3. GENERAL COMPOSITION OF BIOMASS 42
3.3.1. Cellulose 44
3.3.2. Hemicellulose 45
3.3.3. Lignin 46
3.4. BIOMASS CLASSIFICATION 47
3.4.1. Agriculture Residues 47
3.4.1.1. Availability of Agricultural Crops Residue 48
3.4.1.2. Components of Agricultural Crop Residues 48
3.4.2. Dedicated Energy Crops 50
3.4.3. Woody Plants and Residues 51
3.4.4. Municipal Solid Waste 52
3.4.4.1. Availability of Municipal Solid Waste 53
3.4.5. Industrial Wastes 54
3.4.6. Non-Edible Oilseeds Bearing Trees 54
3.4.7. Aquatic Biomass 55
3.5. CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY FOR BIOENERGY PRODUCTION
FROM BIOMASS RESOURCES 57
3.5.1. Thermo-Chemical Processes 58
3.5.1.1. Direct Combustion 58
3.5.1.2. Gasification 58
3.3.1.2. Pyrolysis 59
3.5.2. Chemical Process 62
3.5.3. Biochemical Process 62
3.5.3.1. Anaerobic Digestion 62
3.5.3.2. Fermentation 63
3.6. NATIONAL PROGRAMMES TO PROMOTE BIOMASS
ENERGY PRODUCTION 63
3.7. CONCLUSION 64
REFERENCES 65

Chapter 4). BIOMASS PRETREATMENT AND SACCHARIFICATION 67

4.1. BACKGROUND 67
4.2. OVERVIEW OF BIOMASS COMPOSITION AND HYDROLYSIS 68
4.3. FACTORS LIMITING THE ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS 69
4.4. PRETREATMENT PROCESS FOR LIGNOCELLULOSIC MATERIAL 70
4.5. PRETREATMENT METHODS 71
4.5.1. Physical Pretreatment 73
4.5.1.1. Liquid Hot-Water Pretreatment 74
4.5.1.2. Steam Explosion 74
4.5.1.3. Microwave Irradiation 75
4.5.2. Chemical Pretreatment 75
4.5.2.1. Acid Hydrolysis 76
4.5.2.2. Alkali Hydrolysis 79
4.5.2.3. Ammonia Explosion 81
4.5.2.4. CO2 Explosion 82
4.5.2.5. Application of Oxidizing Compounds 83
4.5.2.6. Organosolv Pretreatment 83
4.5.2.7. Ozonolysis Pretreatment 84
4.5.2.8. Microwave Assisted Acid and Alkali Pretreatment 85
4.5.3. Inhibitors Production During Aqueous Pretreatment 85
4.5.4. Biological Pretreatment 87
4.6. ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS 88
4.6.1. The Factors That Affect The Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose 91
4.7. ADVANCES IN ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS AND BIOFUEL PRODUCTION 92
4.7.1. Genetic Manipulation of Feedstock Crops 92
4.7.2. Production of Hydrolysis Enzymes in Plants 93
4.7.3. Increasing Cell-Wall Polysaccharide Content 94
4.7.4. Increasing The Overall Biomass 94
4.7.5. Decreasing The Need For Pretreatment 94
4.7.6. Substrate-Disrupting Factors 95
4.7.7. Modifying Features of Cellulose 96
4.8. CONCLUSION 96
REFERENCES 97

Chapter 5). ETHANOL PRODUCTION 101

5.1. BRIEF HISTORY OF ETHANOL AND ETHANOL–GASOLINE BLENDS 101
5.2. ETHANOL AS TRANSPORTATION AND FUEL ADDITIVES 102
5.3. FEED STOCKS AND PROCESSES OF ETHANOL PRODUCTION 103
5.3.1. Starchy Materials 103
5.3.2. Lignocellulosics 105
5.4. MICRO-ORGANISMS FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION 107
5.4.1. Yeasts 107
5.4.2. Bacteria 107
5.4.3. Filamentous Fungi 108
5.5. METABOLIC PATHWAY OF ETHANOL PRODUCTION 109
5.5.1. Metabolic Pathway of Ethanol Production by Saccharomyces Cerevisiae 109
5.5.2. Metabolic Pathway of Ethanol Production by Zymomonas Mobilis 110
5.6. FACTORS AFFECTING THE ETHANOL PRODUCTION 112
5.6.1. Temperature 113
5.6.2. pH 114
5.6.3. Aeration 114
5.6.4. Ethanol Tolerance 114
5.6.5. Sugar Concentration 115
5.6.6. Nutrients 115
5.6.7. Inoculum 115
5.6.8. Inhibitors 115
5.7. MODES OF OPERATION OF ETHANOL FERMENTATION PROCESS 116
5.7.1. Batch Fermentation 116
5.7.2. Continuous Culture 117
5.7.3. Fed-batch Process 118
5.7.4. Semi-continuous Processes 119
5.8. PROCESS INTEGRATION 119
5.8.1. Separate Hydrolysis and Fermentation 120
5.8.2. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation 122
5.8.3. Simultaneous Saccharification and Co-Fermentation 122
5.8.4. Consolidated Bio-Processing (CBP) 123
5.9. ETHANOL FROM MOLASSES AND AGRI-RESOURCES 124
5.10. ECONOMICS OF ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM LIGNOCELLULOSICS 126
5.11. IMPROVEMENT IN FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY 127
5.11.1. Microbial Fermentations with Immobilized Cells 127
5.11.2. Genetic Engineering for Improvement in Microorganisms for
Ethanol Production 128
REFERENCES 130

Chapter 6). BIODIESEL PRODUCTION 135

6.1. BACKGROUND 135
6.2. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF BIODIESEL AS A FUEL 136
6.3. PETROLEUM DIESEL VS. BIODIESEL FUEL BLENDS 136
6.4. ADVANTAGES OF BIODIESEL 137
6.5. BIODIESEL PRODUCTION AND CURRENT STATUS OF THE WORLD 138
6.6. INDIA’S ENERGY DEMAND, BIODIESEL PRODUCTION AND
CURRENT STATUS 139
6.7. RAW MATERIALS FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION 140
6.7.1. Global Production and Net Trade for Selected Oilseeds 140
6.7.2. Oil Content in Various Edible Oilseeds Crops 141
6.7.3. Production and Consumption of Edible Oil in India 141
6.7.4. Biodiesel Production From Major TBO(s) and Non-Edible Oil Sources 142
6.7.4.1. Ratan Jyot (Jatropha Curcas) 144
6.7.4.2. Pongamia (Pongamia pinnata) 145
6.7.4.3. Neem (Azadirachta indica) 145
6.7.4.4. Soapnut (Sapindus mukorossi) 146
6.7.4.5. Kusum (Schleichera oleosa) 146
6.7.4.6. Kokum (Garcinia indica) 147
6.7.4.7. Cheura (Diploknema butyracea) 147
6.7.4.8. Tung (Aleurites fordii) 147
6.7.5. Oil Seeds From Natural Forests and Existing Plantations 148
6.7.5.1. Sal (Shorea robusta) 148
6.7.5.2. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) 148
6.7.6. Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) 149
6.7.7. Biodiesel From Microalgae 149
6.8. MAJOR COMPONENTS OF PLANT OIL AND LIPIDS 150
6.9. BIODIESEL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES 150
6.9.1. Pyrolysis 151
6.9.2. Micro-Emulsification 151
6.9.3. Transesterification 151
6.9.3.1. Base Catalyst Transesterification 152
6.9.3.2. Acid Catalyst Transesterification 155
6.9.4. Supercritical & Subcritical Alcohol Transesterification 155
6.9.5. Enzymatic Production of Biodiesel 156
6.9.6. Comparison of The Different Technologies in Biodiesel Production 157
6.9.7. Factors Affecting The Transesterification Reaction 157
6.9.7.1. Molar Ratio of Alcohol to Oil 158
6.9.7.2. Temperature and Reaction Time 158
6.9.7.3. Agitation Speed and Mixing Condition 159
6.9.7.4. Free Fatty Acid and Moisture 159
6.9.7.5. Types and Amount of Catalyst 160
6.10. CONSTRAINTS IN BIODIESEL PRODUCTION 160
6.10.1. High Feedstock Cost 160
6.10.2. Shifting Food to Fuel 161
6.10.3. Technical Constraints 161
6.10.4. Gum Formation 161
6.11. CONCLUSION 161
REFERENCES 162

Chapter 7). BIOFUELS FROM ALGAL BIOMASS 166

7.1. BACKGROUND 166
7.2. MICROALGAE AND THEIR CLASSIFICATION 167
7.3. MICROALGAE PRODUCTION 168
7.3.1. Photoautotrophic Production 168
7.3.1.1. Open Pond Production Systems 168
7.3.1.2. Closed Photobioreactor Systems 169
7.3.1.3. Hybrid production systems 172
7.3.2. Heterotrophic Production 173
7.3.3. Mixotrophic Production 173
7.4. FACTORS AFFECT THE ALGAL GROWTH 174
7.5. HARVESTING AND RECOVERY OF MICROALGAL BIOMASS 174
7.5.1. Harvesting and Dewatering Methods 175
7.5.2. Drying of Microalgal Biomass 177
7.6. EXTRACTION OF FEEDSTOCKS FOR BIOFUEL PRODUCTION 177
7.6.1. Oil Extraction for Biodiesel 177
7.6.2. Extraction of Fermentable Sugar for Bioethanol or
Biobutanol Production 178
7.7. CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES FOR ALGAL BIOFUELS 178
7.7.1. Biochemical Conversion Technologies 179
7.7.1.1. Algal Biomass-To-Biodiesel 180
7.7.1.2. Bioethanol Fermentation 181
7.7.1.3. Biobutanol Production From Algal Biomass 182
7.7.1.4. Algal Biohydrogen Production 183
7.7.1.5. Algal Biogas Production by Anaerobic Digestion 184
7.7.2. Thermochemical Conversion 185
7.7.2.1. Gasification 185
7.7.2.2. Thermochemical Liquefaction 186
7.7.2.3. Pyrolysis 187
7.7.2.4. Direct Combustion 187
7.8. ECONOMICS 188
7.9. THE ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATION OF ALGAL BIOFUELS
PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 188
7.9.1. The Advantages of Microalgae Biomass for Biofuels Production 188
7.9.2. Limitations of Algal Biodiesel Production Technology 189
7.10. CONCLUSION 190
REFERENCES 190

Chapter 8). BIOHYDROGEN 193

8.1. INTRODUCTION 193
8.2. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF HYDROGEN AS A FUEL 194
8.3. CURRENT STATUS OF HYDROGEN PRODUCTION 195
8.4. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES 196
8.4.1. Hydrogen Produced Via Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) 197
8.4.2. Hydrogen Production from Biomass 198
8.5. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION ROUTES FROM BIOMASS 199
8.5.1. Thermochemical Hydrogen Production from Biomass 201
8.5.1.1. Combustion 201
8.5.1.2. Direct Liquefaction 201
8.5.1.3. Hydrogen from Biomass Pyrolysis 202
8.5.1.4. Hydrogen from Biomass Gasification 205
8.5.2. Biological Hydrogen Production 206
8.5.2.1. Biophotolysis 207
8.5.2.2. Direct Biophotolysis 208
8.5.2.3. Indirect Biophotolysis 208
8.5.2.4. Photo-Fermentation 209
8.5.2.5. Dark-Fermentation 209
8.5.2.6. Hybrid Reactor System or Two-Stage Process 210
8.5.2.7. Bio-Catalyzed Electrolysis 211
8.6. USE OF HYDROGEN ENERGY AND FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES 212
8.6.1. Fuel Cell 212
8.6.2. Principle of Fuel Cell Operation 213
8.6.3. Types of Fuel Cells 213
8.6.4. The Advantages of Fuel Cells 214
8.6.5. Application of Fuel Cells 215
8.6.6. Fuel-Cell R&D in India 216
8.7. PROS AND CONSTRAINTS IN HYDROGEN ENERGY 217
8.8. COST OF HYDROGEN PRODUCTION 217
8.9. CONCLUSION 217
REFERENCES 218

Chapter 9). BIOGAS TECHNOLOGY 220

9.1. INTRODUCTION 220
9.2. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 221
9.3. BIOGAS POTENTIAL OF INDIA 222
9.4. FEEDSTOCK FOR BIOGAS PRODUCTION 222
9.5. COMPOSITION OF BIOGAS 223
9.6. ENERGY CONTENT OF BIOGAS COMPARED TO OTHER FUELS 224
9.7. REMOVAL OF IMPURITIES 225
9.8. BIOGAS PRODUCTION PROCESS 226
9.8.1. Hydrolysis 226
9.8.2. Acidogenesis or Acid Production 227
9.8.3. Acetogenesis or Acetic Acid Production 229
9.8.4. Methanogenesis or Methane Production 230
9.9. PARAMETERS AFFECTING METHANE FORMATION 231
9.9.1. Environmental Factors 231
9.9.1.1. pH 231
9.9.1.2. Temperature 232
9.9.1.3. Nutrient Availability 232
9.9.1.4. Toxic Materials 232
9.9.2. Operational Factors 232
9.9.2.1. Substrate Composition 232
9.9.2.2. Particle Size of the Feedstock 233
9.9.2.3. C: N Ratio 233
9.9.2.4. Retention Time - Loading Rate - Solid Concentration 233
9.9.2.5. Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) 233
9.9.2.6. Organic Loading Rate 234
9.9.2.7. Solid Concentration 234
9.9.2.8. Seeding of Biogas Plant 234
9.9.2.9. Agitation 235
9.10. BIOGAS PLANTS DESIGNS 235
9.10.1. Components of Biogas Plants 235
9.10.2. Approved Models of Biogas Plants in India 236
9.10.2.1. Fixed-dome Type 236
9.10.2.2. Floating Drum Type 237
9.10.2.3. Bag-type Biogas Plant (Flexi Type) 238
9.11. BENEFITS OF BIOGAS TECHNOLOGY 239
9.11.1. Usage of the Biogas 239
9.11.2. Use of Digested Biogas Slurry as a Fertilizer 240
9.11.3. Environmental Benefits 241
9.11.4. Other Benefits 241
9.12. CONSTRAINTS EFFICIENT WORKING OF BIOGAS
GENERATING SYSTEMS 242
9.12.1. Technical Constraints 242
9.12.2. Financial Constraints 242
9.12.3. Social Constraints 242
9.12.4. Environmental Constraints 242
9.13. TECHNIQUES FOR ENHANCING BIOGAS PRODUCTION 243
9.13.1. Use of Additives 243
9.13.2. Recycling of Digested Slurry/slurry Filtrate 243
9.13.3. Variation in Operational Parameters 244
9.13.4. Innovations in Digester Designs 244
9.14. CDM TO BIOGAS TECHNOLOGY 244
9.15. CONCLUSION 245
REFERENCES 245

Chapter 10). BIOFUELS AND ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS 247

10.1. BACKGROUND 247
10.2. PROPERTIES AND COMBUSTION PROFILE OF BIOFUELS 248
10.2.1. Properties and Combustion Profile of Ethanol 248
10.2.2. Properties and Combustion Profile of Biodiesel 250
10.2.3. Properties and Combustion Profile of Biogas 251
10.3. EMISSION LIMITS AND STANDARD 252
10.3.1. Standards for Biodiesel 254
10.4. BIOFUELS FOR EMISSION REDUCTION AND AIR QUALITY 255
10.4.1. Exhaust Emission Reduction by Ethanol 256
10.4.2. Exhaust Emission Reduction by Biodiesel 257
10.4.3. Atmospheric Pollution Reduction by Biogas 259
10.5. EFFECT OF BIOFUELS ON HEALTH 261
10.5.1. Bioethanol and Human Health 262
10.5.2. Biodiesel and Human Health 262
10.5.3. Biogas and Health Benefits 263
10.6. ADDITIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS FROM BIOFUEL 264
10.6.1. Energy Balances 264
10.6.2. Waste Reduction 265
10.6.3. Biodegradability and Toxicity 265
10.6.4. Reduction in Global Warming 265
10.7. FURTHER SCOPE OF BIOFUELS ON ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS 266
10.8. CONCLUSION 267
REFERENCES 267

Chapter 11). BIOFUELS AND FOOD SECURITY 269

11.1. BACKGROUND 269
11.2. GLOBAL ENERGY AND FOOD SECURITY CONCERN 270
11.2.1. Food Security 271
11.2.2. Energy Consumption and Soaring prices of Crude Oils 271
11.3. BIOFUEL FOR ENERGY SECURITY 272
11.3.1. Food Shortage and Soaring Prices of Food Grains 273
11.4. PRODUCTIVITY AND AVAILABILITY OF FOOD GRAINS IN INDIA 274
11.5. GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES FOR FOOD SECURITY 276
11.6. ENERGY SECURITY 278
11.6.1. India’s Energy Security 280
11.6.2. Current Status of Biofuel Production in India 282
11.6.3. Potential Feedstocks for Biofuel Production 283
11.6.3.1. Crop Residues as Feedstock for Biofuel 283
11.6.3.2. ‘Smart’ Biofuel Crops Ensure Food and
Environmental Security 284
11.6.3.3. Biofuel from Non-Edible Oils 284
11.6.3.4. Algal Biofuel 285
11.7. CONCLUSION 286
REFERENCES 286

Chapter 12). CLIMATE CHANGE AND BIOFUELS 287

12.1. BACKGROUND 287
12.2. CONTRIBUTION OF VARIOUS CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES
TO CLIMATE CHANGE 289
12.2.1. Fossil Fuel Consumption and Climate Change 289
12.2.2. Biomass Burning and Deforestation to Climate Change 290
12.2.3. Biomass Decay and Climate Change 290
12.3. ADAPTATION AND MITIGATION OPTIONS FOR CLIMATE CHANGE 291
12.3.1. Role of Biofuels in Climate Change 292
12.3.1.1. Bioethanol and Biodiesel for Climate Change Mitigation 293
12.3.1.2. Biogas as Biofuel in Methane Management and
Climate Change Mitigation 297
12.3.1.3. Emission Reduction by Carbon-free Biofuels 298
12.3.2. Carbon Mitigation by Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) 298
12.3.3. Ways to Sequester Carbon 299
12.3.3.1. Sequestering Carbon in Terrestrial Biomass 300
12.3.3.2. Sequestering Carbon in Algal Biomass 300
12.4. CONCLUSION 301
REFERENCES 302

Chapter 13). BIOFUELS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 304

13.1. BACKGROUND 304
13.2. Need of biofuels for Sustainability 305
13.2.1. Energy Supply 305
13.2.2. Climate Change 306
13.2.3. Economic Development 307
13.3. SUSTAINABLE BIOFUELS CRITERIA 307
13.4. CELLULOSIC MATERIALS AS A SUSTAINABLE BIOFUEL SOURCE 309
13.5. BIOFUEL POLICIES AND SUSTAINABILITY 310
13.6. SUSTAINABILITY IN ENERGY SECURITY WITH
CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION 310
13.7. SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY 311
13.8. JOB CREATION AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT 312
13.9. IMPROVED TRADE BALANCE 313
13.10. THE CARBON CYCLE AND BIOFUELS 314
13.11. ESTABLISHMENT OF NEW INDUSTRIES 314
13.12. CONCLUSION 315
REFERENCES 315

Glossary 317
Acronyms 330
List of Abbreviations 330
Conversion Factor 334